Kyphoplasty



Kyphon Balloon Kyphoplasty uses orthopaedic balloons to restore vertebral height and correct angular deformity from vertebral compression fractures (VCF) due to osteoporisis, cancer, or benign lesion. After reduction, the balloons are deflated and removed. The resulting cavity (void) allows for a controlled deposition of Kyphon bone cement — which helps form an internal cast and stabilize the fracture.

Indications

The Kyphon Balloon Kyphoplasty product is used to treat pathological fractures of the vertebral body due to osteoporosis, cancer, or benign lesions. Cancer includes multiple myeloma and metastatic lesions, including those arising from breast or lung cancer, or lymphoma. Benign lesions include hemangioma and giant cell tumor.

Details

Use of bilateral balloon kyphoplasty increases the lift force with less exerted stress on the in vitro model endplate vs. unilateral balloon kyphoplasty based on an engineering test environment that measured balloon lift force, balloon contact area and balloon exerted stress.

Results indicated that the unilateral and bilateral approaches to balloon kyphoplasty are statistically significant in all features assessed.  The bilateral approach yielded a lift force that was 105% greater than the unilateral approach.  The bilateral approach had a contact area that was 279% compared to the unilateral approach.  The exerted stress for the bilateral approach was 26% less than that of the unilateral approach.

Procedure

During the days before surgery, a doctor may recommend that a person avoids taking drugs that make it hard for blood to clot, such as aspirin and warfarin. On the day of surgery, a person will probably be told not to eat or drink anything for several hours before the procedure. A person can take any medication a doctor approves, along with sips of water.

A surgeon will perform kyphoplasty in a hospital or outpatient clinic. A person may have either local or general anesthetic. The surgical procedure is as follows:

  • A surgeon will insert a needle into the spine bone through the skin. They will then use X-ray images to guide them to the correct area.
  • They will then place a small device called a balloon tamp through the needle and into the fractured vertebra.
  • The surgeon will inflate the balloon tamp. This helps to restore the height of the vertebrae.
  • When the surgeon removes the balloon tamp, it leaves a cavity that is injected with acrylic bone cement to prevent it from collapsing again.

Most people will be able to go home from the hospital the same day. A person should not drive unless a medical professional approves it.

Risks and complications

Risks and complications of kyphoplasty may include:

  • Infection
  • Increased back pain
  • Bleeding
  • Nerve damage
  • Allergic reaction to the chemicals used with X-rays to help guide the surgeon
  • Acrylic bone cement leaking out of position

Although risks related to kyphokplasty are rare, serious complications can occur, including spinal cord compression, nerve root compression, venous embolism, and pulmonary embolism, including cardiovascular collapse. According to the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Kyphoplasty complication rates are at less than 2% for osteoporotic VCF’s, and up to 10% for malignant tumor-related VCF’s.

Credits & Sources:

  1. MedlinePlus
  2. MedicalNewsToday
  3. Medtronics

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